Refractive errors

Sep 18, 2020

Myopia (short-sightedness or near-sightedness)

When light rays enter the eye, they should normally be focused on the central fixation point (macula) of the eye in order for the eye to produce clear vision.

In a myopic eye, the eye is too long for light rays to be focused accurately on the macula. Images are formed in front of the macula instead, resulting in blurr ...

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Sep 18, 2020


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition that causes central visual loss in individuals over the age of 50 years.  It is one of the top 3 causes of blindness around the world. 

AMD affects the central fixation point of the eye (macula) and loss of central vision can be severe and perm ...

Retinal Tear and Retinal Detachments

Sep 17, 2020

The middle of the eyeball is filled with a transparent, sticky gel (vitreous) that is adherent to the surface of the retina (nerve layer) of the eye. During the degenerative process, the gel normally shrinks and peels away from the surface of the retina. If the gel fails to separate from the delicate retina safely, a retinal tear may develop.

Degenerating gel shrinks and pulls on the retina, and tightly adherent points may cause ret ...

Retinal Vein Occulsion

Sep 17, 2020

Retinal veins are blood vessels in the retina (nerve layer) of the eye that drains blood from the eye. If retinal veins are occluded (blocked), blood and fluid leak into the surrounding retina. This can be likened to a damn causing a river to burst its banks, resulting in flooding and damage to the surrounding land. 

When leakage occurs into the central fixation point of the eye (macula), swelling of the macula (macular edema) will cause visual impairment. Sometimes, vein ...

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